The 1970 FIFA World Cup took place in Mexico from 31 May to 21 June 1970. This was the first World Cup held in North America and the first also held outside Europe and South America. 16 teams from 5 confederations participated in the final tournament: 9 from Europe (UEFA), 3 from South America (CONMEBOL), 2 from North America, Central America and Caribbean (CONCACAF), 1 from Africa (CAF), and 1 from Asia (AFC). Three teams made their first World Cup presentation (El Salvador, Israel, and Morocco).
Times were indeed changing. The 1970 FIFA World Cup marked a new for soccer. Two substitutes were allowed per team, and the use of red and yellow cards was introduced. This was also the first time the World Cup was broadcast in colour around the globe, and hundreds of millions watched and enjoyed the best of sports. Eduardo Sacheri wrote: “Some argue that football has nothing to dowith man’s life, with his most essential things. I do not know howmuch those people know about life. But one thing is sure: they knownothing about soccer".The Secret in Their Eyes (Spanish: El secretode sus ojos) is a 2009 Argentine crime thriller based on Sacheri's novel La Pregunta de Sus Ojos (The Question in Their Eyes). The film won the Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film at the 82nd Academy Awards.
The 1970 FIFA World Cup is regarded by many as one of the best World Cups in history. Many delegates were worried about breathing problems associated with high altitude, hot temperatures, and mid-day sun. However, the quality of many games was excellent and the semifinals as thrillers. The four teams participating had already been world champions. In the first semifinal, which faced two South American teams and old enemies, Brazil defeated Uruguay 3-1. In the other semifinal, which faced two European teams, Italy beat Germany 4-3 in extra-time. Five of the seven goals of this match were scored in extra time. Gianni Rivera, the golden boy of Italian football, scored the winning goal. This game is regarded as the greatest World Cup game ever and is known as “The Game of the Century”. There is a monument commemorating this match in front of the Estadio Azteca.
The 1970 FIFA World Cup Final was contested at the monumental Estadio Azteca in Mexico City, in front of 107,000 delirious fans and hundreds of millions more watching on television, for the only two-time champions, Brazil, and Italy. Brazil with a bit of samba and an exhibition of attacking football, with an incredible Pelé and a fantastic group of players including Gérson, Carlos Alberto, Jairzinho, Rivelino and Tostão, beat Italy 4-1 winning the third World Cup. After this triumph, Brazil, the first three-time champions, was allowed to keep the Jules Rimet Trophy permanently. Brazil was a perfect machine in this tournament. They clearly won the six games on the way to the title, and so much so, that are remembered as the greatest soccer team of all time. On the other hand, Pelé crowned his career with his third title, and Mario Zagallo became the first man to win the World Cup both as player and coach.
The top scorer (Golden Shoe) of the tournament was Gerd Müller of Germany, who would go on to score ten goals, including hat tricks in consecutive games against Peru and Bulgaria. Müller can hardly forget that year, as well as being the top scorer of the World Cup, was elected the best European player and was the best European scorer with 38 goals. Peruvian Teófilo Cubillas was elected best young player. The names that people probably remember from those times are: Mario Zagallo (Brazilian coach), Dino Zoff (Italian goalkeeper), Ladislao Mazurkiewicz (Uruguayan goalkeeper), Gordon Banks (English goalkeeper), Carlos Alberto (Brazilian defender), Franz Beckenbauer (German defender), Bobby Moore (English defender), Héctor Chumpitaz (Peruvian defender), Bobby Charlton (English midfielder), Clodoaldo (Brazilian midfielder), Gérson (Brazilian midfielder), Gianni Rivera (Italian midfielder and European player of the year), Tostão (Brazilian midfielder), Roberto Rivellino (Brazilian midfielder), Pelé (Brazilian striker), Jairzinho (Brazilian striker), Luigi Riva (Italian striker), Teófilo Cubillas (Peruvian striker and best young player), and Gerd Müller (German striker and Golden Shoe).
Mexico was chosen to host the 1970 FIFA World Cup, the ninth World Cup, at the FIFA Congress in Tokyo, Japan, on 8 October 1964. There were two bids to host the 1970 FIFA World Cup: Argentina, and Mexico. In one round of voting, Mexico, with 56 votes, defeated Argentina, with 32 votes, for the hosting position. Argentina lost the bid to host the World Cup for the fourth time (1934, 1942, 1962 and 1970).
Teams that played at least one qualifying match:
542 (3.15 per match)
A total of 75 teams signed up to participate in the 1970 FIFA World Cup qualification rounds setting a new record number of entries for the qualifying tournament. Mexico, as the hosts, and England, as the defending champions, qualified automatically, leaving 14 spots open for competition.
This was the first time that the African zone as well as the Asian and Oceanian zone were guaranteed a direct place in the final tournament in Mexico. France, Spain, Hungary and Argentina, all considered great teams at that time, failed to qualify. On the other hand, the Football War was a four-day war fought by El Salvador and Honduras in 1969. The war had clear political reasons –immigration and demographic problems in El Salvador- but was initiated in the qualifying matches between El Salvador and Honduras for the 1970 World Cup. The war began on 14 July on 1969 and cease-fire took full effect on 20 July 1969. It is estimated that El Salvador suffered about 900 troops and civilians killed during the war, and Honduras lost around 2,100 men, most of them civilians. More than 300,000 Salvadorans were displaced due to the war.
The 14 available spots were distributed in continental zones as shown below:
Europe (UEFA): 9 spots. 29 teams competed for 8 direct places. England, as the defending champion, qualified directly. Albania rejected. The entry was not accepted by FIFA.
South America (CONMEBOL): 3 spots. 10 teams competed for 3 direct places.
North America, Central America and Caribbean (CONCACAF): 2 spots. 12 teams competed for only 1 direct place. Mexico, as the hosts, qualified automatically. Cuba rejected. The entry was not accepted by FIFA.
Africa (CAF): 1 spot. 11 teams competed for only 1 direct place. Guinea and Zaire rejected. The entries were not accepted by FIFA.
Asia (AFC) and Oceania (OFC): 1 spot. 7 teams (including Rhodesia from Africa) competed for 1 direct place. North Korea refused to play in Israel, so it was withdrew from the competition.
A total of 68 teams played at least one qualifying match, 172 qualifying matches were played, and 542 goals were scored establishing three new records.
Absolute frequency is a statistical term describing the number of times a particular piece of data, or value, appears during a trial or set of trials. Essentially, it is the number of times a particular thing happens. For example, in this World Cup one player from Brazil scored seven goals, another one scored four goals, one more score three goals, another one score two goals and three more players scored one goal. The sum of the absolute frequency represents the number of players that scored at least one goal (7 players in the case of Brazil: 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 3 = 7). The sum of the product between the number of times per value results in the number of goals for a team (19 goals in the case of Brazil: 1*7 + 1*4 + 1*3 + 1*2 + 3*1 = 19)
h-index is the largest number h such that h teams have at least h players.
i-10 index is the number of teams with at least 10 players.
i-30 index is the number of teams with at least 30 players. i-50 index is the number of teams with at least 50 players. nt is the number of teams. cha is the number of positions won or lost compared to the previous world cup.
The top scorer (Golden Shoe) of the tournament was Gerd Müller from West Germany, who would go on to scoreten goals. The best young player of the tournament was Teófilo Cubillas from Peru. The names that people probably remember from those times are: